Contingency Management
Part 1: An Evidenced-Based Approach to Positive Change



Motivational Incentives Suite (NIDA/SAMHSA-ATTC, 2011).  Developed by NIDA/SAMHSA Blending Teams (2007, 2011), including NIDA researchers and staff from CSAT and ATTCs.

To view or download, visit:,, or, or

1. Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives(PAMI, 2nd edition, 2011).  An introductory training and package of resources first released in 2007, and revised and redesigned to incorporate feedback from the field, testimony, and lessons learned by regional ATTCs as they have used PAMI across the nation to raise awareness and help providers, clinical supervisors, policy makers and others understand and implement M-Inc.  The PAMI toolkit is featured in three- to six-hour ATTC trainings, and provides a fundamental understanding of M-Inc, including its seven principles and an introduction to an effective-low-cost strategy for implementation.  Including a redesigned video, a new comprehensive trainer guide, PowerPoints, articles, and more, PAMI serves as a foundation to the next two products.

2. Motivational Incentives: Positive Reinforcers to Enhance Successful Treatment Outcomes (MI:PRESTO, 2011).  A self-guided, interactive online course designed to help clinical supervisors and other behavioral health (BH) practitioners experience, utilize, and customize the use of M-Inc within the context of a community-based treatment organization.  It includes a step-by-step interactive guide to implementation through each of the seven principles of M-Inc; takes about five hours to complete; and is free (or for a low fee of $25 five NAADAC or NBCC CE credits are available).

3.  Motivational Incentives Implementation Software(MIIS, 2011).  A software platform developed by NIDA that provides the mechanism to accomplish two goals:  1) To assist researchers, clinicians, and counselors in utilizing and applying M-Inc for treating substance abuse patients; and, 2) To maintain information about clinic patients as well as in the implementation and calculation of incentives based on defined parameters.  MIIS is secure, easy to use, and easy to understand.  It consists of a user interface to enter pertinent information and parameters, and to manage patient activities.  It also contains a database where patient information is stored.  Information recorded by MIIS includes patient identification and demographics, attendance records, abstinence history, incentives (draws and prizes), and drugs of choice.

Other Sources

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Bigelow, G., & Silverman, K. (1999). Theoretical and empirical foundations of contingency management treatments for drug abuse. In S.T. Higgins & K. Silverman (Eds.), Motivating behavior change among illicit-drug abusers: Research on contingency management interventions (pp. 15-31). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Kellogg S.H., Stitzer M.L., Petry N., and Kreek M.J. (2007), of New York University, Johns Hopkins, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, and The Rockefeller University (respectively).  A publication written and produced specifically for the PAMI (Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives) NIDA/SAMHSA-ATTC Blending Product. 

Kirby, K. C., Amass, L., & McLellan, A. T. (1999). Disseminating contingency management research to drug abuse practitioners. In S. T. Higgins & K. Silverman (Eds.), Motivating behavior change among illicit-drug abusers: Research on contingency management interventions (pp. 327-344). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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